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Central vs Parallel Projection
ProjectionPropagation via Incidence 
Click here for a note on Central versus Parallel Projection.  
At the very heart of geometric construction,
especially of transformation, we find the notion of
projection: the idea that any geometric element
is capable of being pro  jected, of being “thrown on”, or
“cast forward”; there is a sense of elements being “sent elsewhere”
by projection. But projection is not displacement, for elements can not be moved by projection, because they are not physical objects that can be dragged about, or tossed around. Projection is more like copyingon, or propagation, or duplication, because an element and its projection both exist – along with whatever element facilitates the projection. Thus, every projection is an interval^{(*)}. But projection is unlike these processes in that the concepts ‘original’, and ‘copy’, are meaningless. But even this is not “in the Gold”.
Projections are states or concatenations^{**} Crucially, concatenations need not be, or need not have been, sequential in time. This is because Time is not on the list of geometric elements ^{*} and their incidences. That is to say, Time is not a geometric element, and, prima facie, should have no incidence with geometric elements. Nevertheless, the ideas of action and agent, experienced as ‘working’ in Time, are not easily set aside when speaking of projection. These ideas are almost certainly purely anthropomorphic, but if, for the sake of argument, we provisionally accept them, then ... ... projections may be
Many would consider that the Laws of Physics, and of exact science generally, are agents of the second, involuntary kind. But, as we can now appreciate, this assumes a working incidence of geometric elements with physical elements —and, for that matter, with Time.
This ‘working incidence’ cannot be established from first principles. 
Listed beloware the projections available on first principles to the Three True Elements of Geometry, Point, Line and Plane.Without exception, every singlestage projection requires a condition of incidence, and every such projection forms a pair of intervals.
The projection is of the point along the line, and the line joins the source point to the destination point. This is the condition of incidence. Both points and the line exist and persist. The projection is of the line around a point in the plane, and the plane joins the source line to the destination line. This is the condition of incidence. Both lines and the plane exist and persist. The projection is of the plane around the line, and the line joins the source plane to the destination plane. This is the condition of incidence. Both planes and the line exist and persist. However, 

^{**}
A concatenation is a chain: 
* The Elements of TimeIf an instant is, to Time, as a point is to Space, then it must be without size.


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Tutorial Material
Elements(1)
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Proscribed Ops
Absolutes(1)
Absolutes(2)
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Central vs Parallel Projection